in educational (.edu) web sites.
Lee Deforest invented the three electrode vacuum tube amplifier, better known as the Audion, in 1906. He followed the work of Britishengineer John Ambrose Fleming who had developed the first electron tube, the Diode Thermionic Valve, in 1904. The development of the Audion made possible the amplification of the weak signals produced by microphones, and thus, live broadcasting. The Audion and its successors also began to alter the manner in which recordings were made. Prior to electrical amplification, recordings were made acoustically with large horn assemblies. By 1925, most recordings used the new electrical process.
For those who want to tackle the challenge of building their own electrode vacuum tubeamplifier, here are some educational (.edu) web sites. Read " Tubes Mechanics & Mystique" to understand a musician's love for tubes and why they are still used today.
Schematicsfor all-tube guitar amp designs.
1929 Two TubeRadio oak.cats.ohiou.edu
ElectronicPrototyping: Tips and Pitfalls engr.unl.edu
Technology of theModern Music Studio arts.ucsc.edu
RIM/MUSI 419 Electronic Music Relative Links mtsu.edu
UN-L EngineeringElectronics Shop engr.unl.edu
Vacuum Tube Audio hawaii.edu
Web Sites for Electronic Schematics, Software, etc. ee.ualberta.ca
Vacuum Tube Research in commercial (.com) web sites with tons of information!
Ampage tube amps, music, and electronics
Analog Music Zone schematics for guitar effects, electronic circuits, and recording tips & techniques
Duncan's Amp Pages internet resource for those interested inguitar amplifier, vacuum tubes, and design tools (SPICE)
Guitar Notes links, lessons, licks, and more
Hoffman Amplifiers vintage guitar tube amplifiers, parts, andrepair
Homebrew Tube Amp Corner list of vacuum tube amplifiersinformation
PAiA Electronics kits for innovative electronic products
The Virtual Times audio and acoustic links of internet sites and newsgroups
Vacuum Tube Research innetwork (.net) web sites
RADIO COLLECTING LINKS Classic Radio Gallery
Vacuum Tube Links electron vacuum tube internet sites