Vacuum Tube Research
in educational (.edu) web sites.

Lee Deforest   Lee Deforest invented the three electrode vacuum tube amplifier, better known as the Audion, in 1906. He followed the work of British engineer John Ambrose Fleming who had developed the first electron tube, the Diode Thermionic Valve, in 1904.  The development of the Audion made possible the amplification of the weak signals produced by microphones, and thus, live broadcasting. The Audion and its successors also began to alter the manner in which recordings were made. Prior to electrical amplification, recordings were made acoustically with large horn assemblies. By 1925, most recordings used the new electrical process.

   For those who want to tackle the challenge of building their own electrode vacuum tube amplifier, here are some educational (.edu) web sites.  Read " Tubes Mechanics & Mystique" to understand a musician's love for tubes and why they are still used today.

   Schematics for all-tube guitar amp designs.

   1929 Two Tube Radio

   Electronic Prototyping: Tips and Pitfalls

   Technology of the Modern Music Studio

   RIM/MUSI  419 Electronic Music Relative Links

   UN-L Engineering Electronics Shop

   Vacuum Tube Audio

   Web Sites for Electronic Schematics, Software, etc.

Vacuum Tube Research in commercial (.com) web sites with tons of information!

   Ampage  tube amps, music, and electronics

   Analog Music Zone   schematics for guitar effects, electronic circuits, and recording tips & techniques

   Duncan's Amp Pages  internet resource for those interested in guitar amplifier, vacuum tubes, and design tools (SPICE)

   Guitar Notes  links, lessons, licks, and more

   Hoffman Amplifiers  vintage guitar tube amplifiers, parts, and repair

   Homebrew Tube Amp Corner  list of vacuum tube amplifiers information

   PAiA Electronics  kits for innovative electronic products

   The Virtual Times  audio and acoustic links of internet sites and newsgroups

Vacuum Tube Research in network (.net) web sites

   RADIO COLLECTING LINKS   Classic Radio Gallery

   Vacuum Tube Links  electron vacuum tube internet sites

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