Vacuum TubeResearch
in educational (.edu) web sites.

Lee Deforest   Lee Deforest invented the three electrode vacuum tube amplifier, better known as the Audion, in 1906. He followed the work of Britishengineer John Ambrose Fleming who had developed the first electron tube, the Diode Thermionic Valve, in 1904.  The development of the Audion made possible the amplification of the weak signals produced by microphones, and thus, live broadcasting. The Audion and its successors also began to alter the manner in which recordings were made. Prior to electrical amplification, recordings were made acoustically with large horn assemblies. By 1925, most recordings used the new electrical process.

   For those who want to tackle the challenge of building their own electrode vacuum tubeamplifier, here are some educational (.edu) web sites.  Read " Tubes Mechanics & Mystique" to understand a musician's love for tubes and why they are still used today.

   Schematicsfor all-tube guitar amp designs.

   1929 Two TubeRadio

   ElectronicPrototyping: Tips and Pitfalls

   Technology of theModern Music Studio

   RIM/MUSI 419 Electronic Music Relative Links

   UN-L EngineeringElectronics Shop

   Vacuum Tube Audio

   Web Sites for Electronic Schematics, Software, etc.

Vacuum Tube Research in commercial (.com) web sites with tons of information!

   Ampage  tube amps, music, and electronics

   Analog Music Zone  schematics for guitar effects, electronic circuits, and recording tips & techniques

   Duncan's Amp Pages  internet resource for those interested inguitar amplifier, vacuum tubes, and design tools (SPICE)

   Guitar Notes  links, lessons, licks, and more

   Hoffman Amplifiers  vintage guitar tube amplifiers, parts, andrepair

   Homebrew Tube Amp Corner  list of vacuum tube amplifiersinformation

   PAiA Electronics  kits for innovative electronic products

   The Virtual Times audio and acoustic links of internet sites and newsgroups

Vacuum Tube Research innetwork (.net) web sites

   RADIO COLLECTING LINKS  Classic Radio Gallery

   Vacuum Tube Links electron vacuum tube internet sites